Astronomer traces new class of black punches on
Black punches, those post-sphere vacuum cleaners who swallow matter and energy completely, are known to pay astrophysics, scientific interested layers and science fiction authors to fascinate astrophysics, scientifically interested layers and science-fiction authors. So far, the researchers spurt two types of them: stellar and supermassive black punch. For a long time between the coarse and small black punches, a huge luck gapped. Now this could definitely be closed using the hubble space telescope.
As in 1967 the american physicist john archibald wheeler you the significant name "black holes" gave, the former astrophysics still advised if these cosmic bizarre forms, in whose centers space and time allegedly the temporal bless, could be real-real. But what anno dazumal was at best a highly hypothetical fantasy imagery, which noid noted in 1783 the english geologist and physicist john mitchell postulated for the first time, is today in astrophysik mainstream: black punch (SL) are highest mysteriosis natural phenomena that are not uncommon in the universe.
Stellar and supermassive SL
Until recently, these invisible freeful energy consps presented themselves in two basic variants: once as a stellar black punch (SL) of just a few kilometers diameter, which comes from a mother star, which is only a few times heavier than our sun; sometimes as a supermassive black punch with around one million to a billion sun masses as a source of intensive radiation, which have become native to the center of many galaxies and of which no astronomy is quite a woman, as they were created there or emerged. This also pays "beast" in the center of our galaxy, as his colleagues, who fell into almost all other galactic centers – by his tremendous gravity gas, dust and even whole stars so quickly devours that the incident matter heats up to millions of degrees and therefore in whole spectrum, also brightly lit in the visible area.
For a long time, it looked like there was nothing between the two SL coarse classes, absolutely nothing. But in the summer of 2000, the indications for the existence of smaller super-massive black punches earned for the first time. Cambridger scientist psyched with the japanese rontgenatellite advanced satellite for cosmology and astrophysics (ASCA a black hole with a mass of only 10.000 to 100.000 masses of our sun in the center of the galaxy NGC 4395. The medium grape structure devised a lot of matter and emitted as much rontgen radiation as its coarse conspiration.
Shortly thereafter, another team struggled with the NASA ront gentelescope chandra about 600 light years from the center of the galaxy M82 removes a black hole, which had to have at least the 500fold mass of our sun and was compressed in an object of about the size of our moon. "This discovery opens a whole new area of research", historically, martin ward from the university of english leicester, who participated in the observation. "Nobody was sure that there are such black punches, especially outside the center of galaxies."
Space time strudel as a significant commonality
Moge the respective black-hole species in terms "rough", more precisely "sunbathing" in fact, in some points, they indicate significant similarities: on the one hand, they are – unlike their name suggests – neither black nor do they have a hole. On the other hand, they are extremely compact and absorb how no other object in all the form of matter and energy. And the astronomers they reveal themselves only as dark shades, which actually only thereby "visible" become a ray radiation and distort the light in your environment. It is characteristic of these monsters, above all, that everything that exceeds your event horizon, on nimble in a tremendous cosmic space-time strudel into a singularity disappears – also light, space and time.
If a black hole with his gigantic mass and attraction of matter occurs in itself, it collects this on the so-called accrave pane and spiral from there by train for train – similar to a water strudel – slowly inside the center. The rontgen radiation discharged is so intensively that the light-release invisible is slightly flickered for a brief moment and "visible" will. According to the rontgenflits of the gehrige theory, the surrounding matter should also heat up and simultaneously stimulate these lights in the visible light.
The stricter of this bizarre phanomena is that in the center of a black hole space and time through the corporate gravity to an infinitely small dense point are shrunk together. In this so-called singularitat, the physical laws known to us end. What is beyond our imagination seems "here in" to be a normal idea: space and time merge in an infinite hot and dense point-forming inferno to a seemable nothing. In the singularity, the matter is infinitely tight, the room is fired infinitely. And "in" you do not exist for the time arrow "before" another "return". Time is "here in" not existent.
Isolated in ball star
Now, however, it looks like the medium-sized black punch, who spurted two years ago for the first time, but were accepted in research only half-heartedly, deserves an entry in the astronomical encyclopadia.
How US astronomers announced on tuesday at the headquarters of US space resistance NASA in washington, they discovered with the space telescope hubble just this new type. Those of the researchers as "medium grob" categorized objects, both were expected to expect unusual "locate" isolated in all: in ball star.
The two black punches could be detected by means of detailed speeds of the stars in the ball star. During M15 was close enough to measure the individual movement of the stars, the researchers in G1 determined a collective speed. In both cases, it crystallized that the speed of the stars increased to the center – similarly a water vortex that disappears in a drain. From the quantities, the astronomers then determined the mass of the central object responsible for the movement.
One of the black punch discovered a research group in the stars M15 (NGC 7078) in the constellation pegasus in 32.000 light years distance to earth. The object has a mass that is 4000 times as rough as the sunshine’s sunshine. "These discoveries can tell us something about the very basic processes of the formation of star cloves and black punches in the fruhen universe", explains project manager roeland van der marel from the space telescope science institute in baltimore. "Black punch appears in the universe apparently prior to previously accepted".
The second black hole, which also "medium" class pays the observation team around michael rich from the university of california / los angeles. This is a SL that is located in the star huscent G1 in M31 (mayall II) remote from earth 2.24 million light years. The object belonging to our neighbor galaxy andromeda, the 20.000 sunbowded, was not randomized by rich and his team.
G1 has a total mass of 10 million sun masses, which makes him the massive ball star while we know. He also has a very bright center, so I thought that a search for a massive black hole was worthwhile here.
Saatkorn for supermassive black hole
And the whole work has been worthwhile – thanks to rich’s pronounced astronomical instinct. Now the researchers hope for a central problem of present astronomy to air with the help of the free monster in G1. "We not only learn something about the education black punch. The new data also helps us connect the ball star heaps with the galaxy, which provides important information about the development of galaxies."
Maybe the mass of a black hole is hung directly with the mass of the surrounding star system. Early observations with the hubble space telescope revealed that the mass of the central black hole is about 0.5 percent of the total mass of the respective galaxy. This observation is in line with the now discovered middle black punches. "Maybe these are now discovered middle black punch the building blocks for the super-sacal black punch in the center of the galaxies", so karl gebhardt from the university of texas in austin, according to which two theories compete with each other about the formation of mass-like black punches.
Either such a black hole is equal to the origin of the galaxy by a plethora of matter in the center or it first forms a smaller black hole, which then gradually becomes gross. The observations now seems to speak a lot of that, that everything was actually starting with a smaller black hole.
And the observed black punches in the ball star heaps could according to the astronomers just like that "seed" for a later supercassive black hole, so the researcher.
Ghost dead massel star
With the now discovered important mosaic stone, a tremendous important louder. Now the astronomers finally have certainty that in addition to the relatively small stellar and tremendous super massive black punches, at least one more class exists. In any case, in other spherical windows to black piles, which promises to successfully promise success, since many ball star heaps of astronomical perspective are seen relatively ground.
Whether the study of this new SL type helps to answer the question why and how the tremendous super-massive black punches make up in the center of galaxies, and whether the researchers truly valuable insights over the emergence of the spherical stars as well as the early blacks gain punch of the universe, the time will answer, which – as already mentioned – in such structures usually the temporal blessing.
Sure is only that other SL species – especially the postulated black punches in the miniature version – in the all of her existence time limits, which even approaches there even there. For that these bizarre forms somehow adheres some mysterious, obscure, already recognized the rough british grandeighteur of astronomy martin rees.
Black punches are ghost dead fermenting stars that have separated from the UBLIGER universe at their collapse.
Is right, spooky you are. And somehow you have separated from the rest of the universe. Unfortunately, the spooky unforming figures tend but also just to the universe that "elixir" – say matter and energy – to escape, just developed, from which on an average planet of an average sun of a no less average galaxy once developed once. And certainly not only there.
Immerse in a black hole – short simulation